By Jacques Fleuriot PhD, MEng (auth.)

Sir Isaac Newton's philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica'(the Principia) includes a prose-style mix of geometric and restrict reasoning that has usually been considered as logically vague.

In **A mixture of Geometry Theorem Proving and Nonstandard****Analysis**, Jacques Fleuriot offers a formalization of Lemmas and Propositions from the Principia utilizing a mix of tools from geometry and nonstandard research. The mechanization of the methods, which respects a lot of Newton's unique reasoning, is constructed in the theorem prover Isabelle. the applying of this framework to the mechanization of effortless actual research utilizing nonstandard ideas is additionally discussed.

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X::; u') ===> u ::; u' 2) The Archimedean property for the reals. This simple result has farreaching implications since it rules out the existence of infinitely small quantities or infinitesimals in 1R. Any such infinitesimal in 1R would mean that its reciprocal is an upper bound of IN in 1R thereby contradicting the Archimedean property: "Ix. 3n. x < n Various mechanizations of standard analysis (see for example Harrison's work in HOL [42, 43]) have developed theories of limits, derivatives, continuity of functions and so on, taking as their foundations the real numbers.

We would rather have a development of infinitesimals that is guaranteed to be sound - especially with regards to the stormy history of infinitesimals. 3 Internal Set Theory There is, in the literature, an axiomatic version of NSA introduced by Nelson and based on ZF set theory with the Axiom of Choice (ZFC)[62]. Nelson's approach is known as Internal Set Theory (1ST) and adds three additional axioms to those of ZFC. We have not developed Nelson's theory, even though ZF is one of the object-logics of Isabelle, because there are aspects of the additional axioms that seem hard to formalize in Isabelle.

Geometry Theorem Proving producing automated readable proofs, Chou et al. [20] also propose a method based on the concept of full-angles that can be used to deal with classes of theorems that pose problems to the area method. A full-angle (u, v) is the angle from line u to line v measured anti-clockwise. We note that u and v are lines rather than rays; this has the major advantage of simplifying proofs by eliminating case-splits in certain cases. The full-angle is then used to express other familiar geometric properties and augment the reasoning capabilities of the geometry theory.