By Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen
Reviewing exhaustively the present cutting-edge of tissue engineering recommendations for regenerating bones and joints by using biomaterials, development elements and stem cells, in addition to an research of the interactions among biomaterials, bone cells, development components and additional stem cells and the way jointly skeletal tissues will be optimised, this booklet serves to spotlight the significance of biomaterials composition, floor topography, architectural and mechanical homes in supplying aid for tissue regeneration.
Maximizing reader insights into the significance of the interaction of those attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this e-book additionally presents an in depth reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of development components to force tissue regeneration and stem phone recruitment is mentioned besides a overview the aptitude and demanding situations of grownup or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to extra increase the formation of latest bone and cartilage tissues.
This publication serves to illustrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, development components and stem cells in identifying the regenerative technique and therefore the medical outcome.
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Extra resources for A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair
Arthritis Rheum 65(11):2876–2886. 38099 Ozkaynak E, Schnegelsberg PN, Oppermann H (1991) Murine osteogenic protein (OP-1): high levels of mRNA in kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179(1):116–123 Peng Y, Kang Q, Cheng H, Li X, Sun MH, Jiang W, Luu HH, Park JY, Haydon RC, He TC (2003) Transcriptional characterization of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)-mediated osteogenic signaling. J Cell Biochem 90(6):1149–1165. 10744 Peng Y, Kang Q, Luo Q, Jiang W, Si W, Liu BA, Luu HH, Park JK, Li X, Luo J, Montag AG, Haydon RC, He TC (2004) Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation helix-loop-helix proteins mediate bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
Likewise, bone lost during lactation or periods of weightlessness or bed rest can be recovered. Although bone repair and regeneration have been largely considered with respect to the functions of bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts, there is increasing evidence supporting a significant role for osteocytes in the maintenance and repair of bone. Here, we review the evidence for both the direct and indirect involvement of osteocytes in the different modes of bone regeneration. Osteocytes, which reside in the mineralised matrix of bone, are the dominant cell type in bone, and have diverse roles, both in the skeleton itself and in extra-osseous tissues (Atkins and Findlay 2012; Bonewald 2007).
1608 Cao X, Chen D (2005) The BMP signaling and in vivo bone formation. Gene 357(1):1–8. 017 Chen D, Harris MA, Rossini G, Dunstan CR, Dallas SL, Feng JQ, Mundy GR, Harris SE (1997) Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) enhances BMP-3, BMP-4 and bone cell differentiation marker gene expression during the induction of mineralized bone matrix formation in cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. Calcif Tissue Int 60:283–290 Chen D, Zhao M, Harris SE, Mi Z (2004) Signal transduction and biological functions of bone morphogenetic proteins.