By Thomas S. Mowle (auth.)
Why, regardless of their related ambitions, do the coverage personal tastes of the eu Union and usa diverge on such a lot of multilateral concerns? to reply to that question, Allies at Odds? completely examines fresh overseas efforts in palms keep an eye on, environmental safeguard, human rights, and army cooperation. proof from 20 separate instances helps the expectancies of the realist method of foreign politics, which makes a speciality of the position of energy certainly. Neither cultural elements nor foreign associations have as a lot effect as a few count on. This discovering used to be as actual through the Clinton Presidency as in the course of the Bush, indicating that targeting personalities overlooks extra large and longer-lasting ameliorations among the Atlantic allies.
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Additional resources for Allies at Odds? The United States and the European Union
58 Such institutions can have two types of effects. 59 This is not entirely at odds with realism, since the institution is not so much changing preferred goals but rather altering the cost–benefit ratio associated with different strategies. 62 This second effect is the primary means by which institutions moderate anarchy and provide an alternative to realism. Much of the divergence between the United States and the European Union involves the establishment or strengthening of multilateral institutions.
Carr disparaged as the utopian illusion of harmony of interests—the assertion by the powerful that their interests are in fact the interests of all. 70 The notion of indivisibility is closely related to generalized principles of conduct. The benefits of the multilateral approach would go to all, irrespective of any given state’s contribution to the effort. The norms of conduct attempt to guard against the problem of free riders—states that gain the benefits of, for example, a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, without themselves suffering the cost of reducing their own emissions.
47 The United States should particularly favor agreements that would tend to reduce the ability of potential challengers to harm the United States. On issues that do not directly affect material factors, the United States should take the easy step of compromise with others, to reinforce its nonthreatening image without cost. In trying to maintain unipolarity, the United States should “manage . . the arrogance of power. The dominant state in any international order faces strong temptations to go it alone, to dictate rather than consult, to preach its virtues, and to impose its values .