By Hazel Carter
This can be the fourth in a chain of person courses on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned quite in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian executive to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guideline. This quantity offers a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters hide humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.
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Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar
Uálo, pl. móóto). areusuallyin Cl. ,hiboko,pl. nóboko). e q-k4-ambo on top on th€ ground outside onthehead for úe reason ht-mbo hi-n-si kú-n-ze kú-té ht-mu-nzi wcstward to the ground outside far away homewards mú-sule mú-n-si mú-cí-si mú-mú-twe mu-mu-hzt after oear io the country in úe head in the home/village 16 a-tala l8 Noun Formation Processes tNouns canbe formedby changeofclass: ímwámi'chie? (Class1), íbwámi' chieftainship'(Class14). Others can be formed frorn verbs, and by prefixation of 'formatives' to other 23 nouns;they mayalsoincludecompounding.
E. they are --r. Various authorshaveuseddífferenttermsfor úis, asshownin the paragraphheading. -muntu 's/heis a person,an African' m-bantu 'they arepeople' p-cìsani 'it is a cloth' Classla hasBga- with L toneexceptbeforesi-, 11gu-ciwena 'it's a crocodile' ngy-ní? ' 4gti-slnkondo 'he is an enemy' Class2a hasrybaa-z mbaaciwena 'they arecrocodiles' mbaá-ní? ' rybaá-slnlando 'úey areenemies' Class5 haspdi-, takingon thetoneofthe IV: 11di-bbwe 'it's a sÍone' Classes9 and l0 have4È, takingon thetoneofthe IV , pí-mpóngo 'it's a goat' 25 b) definiteor restricted This statesthat the objectis a particularmemberofthe categoryor species.
TheÍe âÍe forms for classes but not for lst and 2nd persons(as there aÍe for series la and lb pronouns). I want this one' nyandáyóoyu andwith a- 'and,with' attached; with úe samemeaningasSeries2a: ooyaayóoyu 'úis one and this one' Unemphaticstabilisationis by meansof SE3, ngu-yóoyu 'it,s this one,úis is the one, emphaticstabilisationis with SE4: qgóngu-yóoyu 'it,s this one,this is the verv one' ! The forms areasfor Series2a, but with final vowel -o. 40 ooyómwána,mwónaoyo 'úat child' Stabilisationis asfor Series2a: 11gó-oyo 'that is s/he;therehe is' Series3b are demonstrativepronouns,with meaningsas for Series3a and usage as for Series2b.