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By T. Douglas Price

"Although occupied in basic terms quite in short within the lengthy span of global prehistory, Scandinavia is a rare laboratory for investigating prior human societies. the realm used to be basically unoccupied until eventually the top of the final Ice Age whilst the melting of massive ice sheets left in the back of a clean, barren land floor, which used to be finally lined by way of wildlife. the 1st people didn't arrive till someday after

"This ebook is ready the prehistory of Scandinavia, from the 1st population to their Viking descendants. Scandinavia during this research contains the fashionable nations of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. the 1st bankruptcy offers frameworks for knowing the prehistory of Scandinavia, focusing on position, time, and archaeology. the following chapters are geared up by means of the most important archeological divisions of the time among the coming of the 1st population, someday after 13,500 BC, and the tip of the Viking interval, ca. advert 1050, from the tip of the Pleistocene, to the early Neolithic, to the Vikings. The archaeology of this sector offers an excellent viewpoint at the improvement of human society. it is a form of laboratory for the evolution of human tradition that permits us to envision certain proof approximately previous alterations in human society and to invite questions about what happened in this strategy. Human teams in Scandinavia developed from small bands of migratory hunters to village farmers, metal-using tribes, and early states in approximately 10,000 years. whereas the point of interest of this quantity is on Scandinavia, what has been realized there has implications throughout a much wider set of archaeological questions: how do people colonize new areas, how do hunter-gatherers adapt to tough environments, how do people deal with dramatic alterations of their atmosphere, how vital used to be the ocean for hunter-gatherers, why did foragers turn into farmers, what have been the results of farming, how did hierarchical social relationships increase, how did early states function? perception on those questions in Scandinavia sheds mild in different places within the prehistoric world"-- Read more...

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historical Scandinavia presents a finished review of the archaeological heritage of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Read more...

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1). A variety of artifacts from the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic, left by the early inhabitants on the bottom of the North Sea and Baltic in this now submerged region, have been found in the dredge nets of fishermen (Long et al. 1986, Vang Petersen and Johansen 1996, Verhart 2004). The human presence on Doggerland during the Late Paleolithic was dramatically documented when a fishing vessel dredged up a barbed point made of antler from deep water in the North Sea in the 1930s. This artifact has been radiocarbon-dated to approximately 11,700 BC (Bonsall and Smith 1989).

This is perhaps best visualized by a series of bands stretching from north to south, from the ice sheet and its front, across a zone of fresh, raw sediments and rocks to a more distant zone of pioneer herbs and shrubs, and further south zones of birch and pine woodlands. The expansion of these zones to the north took thousands of years and was dependent on changing climatic conditions. During the Younger Dryas, southernmost Sweden and eastern Denmark were tundra, while to the south and west birch woodlands covered western Denmark and pine forests likely extended across central Germany.

Average July temperatures in this early part of the Holocene reached ca. 15°C (59°F), and the warming continued. Elm, oak, alder, lime, hazel, and ash were in place by the beginning of the Atlantic phase. A dense, mixed deciduous forest dominated in this phase as the arctic tree line moved north. 9 is the precipitous decrease in elm pollen at the transition from the Atlantic to the Subboreal phase around 4000 BC. Declines in the numbers of lime trees are also apparent at that time. The cause of this “elm decline” has been the subject of debate since its recognition more than 75 years ago, with either climate change or human interference viewed as the likely culprit.

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