Download Archaeological Chemistry IV by Ralph O. Allen (Ed.) PDF

By Ralph O. Allen (Ed.)

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If the conditions of independency are met as far as the analytical equipment and procedures are concerned, one must still differentiate between rapidly and slowly relaxing chemistry. 2 and Fig. ) Taking measurements on a tighter raster or at shorter time intervals increases the workload, improves the plausibility of the results, but does not add any new knowledge about the system under investigation. 4 Reproducibility and Repeatibility Both measures refer to the random error introduced every time a given property of a sample is measured.

The Poisson and the binomial distributions. Instrumental methods of analysis that have Poisson-distributed noise are optical and mass spectroscopy, for instance. For an introduction to parameter estimation under conditions of linked mean and variance, see Ref. 41. For a long time it was widely believed that experimental measurements accurately conformed to the normal distribution. On the whole this is a pretty fair approximation, perhaps arrived at by uncritical extrapolation from a few well-documented cases.

Z . 1Oa) (1. 96 = 2 for the 95% confidence level, this is the explanation for the often-heart term ‘‘ftwo sigma” about some mean. Unless otherwise stated, the expressions of CL() and C1() are forthwith assumed to relate to the 95% confidence level. In everyday analytical work it is improbable that a large number of repeat measurements is performed; most likely one has to make do with less than 20 replications of any determination. No matter which statistical standards are adhered to, such numbers are considered to be “small”, and hence, the law of large numbers, that is the normal distribution, does not strictly apply.

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