By Karen M. Mudry, Robert Plonsey, Joseph D. Bronzino
Produced from chapters conscientiously chosen from CRC's best-selling engineering handbooks, volumes within the ideas and functions in Engineering sequence supply handy, low-budget references sharply all for specific engineering subject matters and subspecialties. Culled from the Biomedical Engineering guide, Biomedical Imaging presents an summary of the most scientific imaging units and highlights rising structures. With functions starting from imaging the total physique to replicating mobile elements, the imaging modalities mentioned contain x-ray platforms, computed tomographic structures, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear drugs, ultrasound, MR microscopy, digital truth, and extra.
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Extra info for Biomedical Imaging
The unit receptors do not need to have highly specialized abilities to permit encoding of a large number of distinct stimuli. Receptive fields are topographic and overlap extensively. Any given stimulus will excite a certain constellation of receptors and is therefore encoded in the particular set that is activated. A large degree of uncertainty prevails and requires the brain to operate probabilistically. In the nervous system there exists a large amount of redundancy, although neurons might have different thresholds.
Several aspects of this natural design deserve consideration. Why do we have center/surround receptive fields? , a border, falling within the receptive field. It is the edge of a shape we see rather than its interior. This represents a form of data compression. Center/surround receptive fields also allow for relative rather than absolute measurements of color and brightness. This is essential for analyzing the image independent of lighting conditions. Why do we have both on-center and off-center cells?
The analyzer responds with a scalar variable R that is then fed back to the system, and the pattern is modified accordingly. The process continues in small steps until there is an almost perfect correlation between the original pattern (template) and the one that neuron N indirectly created. This integrator sends the response back to the original modifier. The integrator need not be a linear summator. It could take any nonlinear form, a fact that is a more realistic representation of the visual cortex.