By John Villadsen, Jens Nielsen, Gunnar Lidén
Integrating fresh study at the body structure and modelling of bioreactions and bioreactors, the authors current a entire, unified creation to the foundations and practices of the sector. The paintings good points approximately a hundred designated layout examples and difficulties, a lot of that are compatible for hands-on demonstrations on a private desktop or for improved learn. The textual content will function a hugely instructive advisor for college kids in bioengineering and biotechnology, in addition to biochemical, chemical, and environmental engineering.
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It should be emphasized that the calculations made here are very uncertain. We do not know the exact value ofthe permeability coeflicient for lactic acid through the lipid membrane of lactic acid bacteria. It was argued above that the permeability coeflicient may be overestimated. If the permeability coeflicient is 1O-100-fold smaIler than the value used in the caIculations, the concJusion will be changed. It should, however, be noticed that the suggested permeability coeflicient is derived from data obtained with the plant cell C.
An extra amide group is more or less equivalent to two extra hydroxyl groups. Conversely, an extra methyl group in the compound is likely to increase the permeability five-fold, while a doubling of molecular volume decreases the penneability 30-fold. 0 10- 4 X 10- 4 10- 3 10- 3 10- 2 10- 2 10- 1 10- 1 10- 4 10- 4 X 10- 5 X X ratio DmemKpar/dmem is called the permeability coefficient P, and it is frequently used for caIculation of the mass transport (Stein, 1990). 3 [data taken from Stein (1990)].
1). The transfer ofthe phosphate group involves at least four separate proteins (see Fig. 5), of which the last member of the chain also serves as the carrier protein that transports the sugar across the cytoplasmic membrane. The last two proteins in the chain are specific to the particular sugar, whereas the first two are identical in different PTSs. When glucose is transported to the cell by means of a PTS. -----:,.. 5. I~~ "I' ,ugars in some bacteria. lr Iransported by a chain ofprotein carriers.