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By Darrell M. West (auth.)

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23 Among the 174 universities that constructed such facilities, the most famous is the Research Triangle Park linking Duke University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University. This area has been a boon to research and development in a variety of areas. 25 Research on these university incubators demonstrates that higher education has become a major regional booster for technological innovation. Not only are these facilities associated with higher economic growth, but there is also evidence that these parks produce spillover effects on new start-ups and that they generate additional research and development spending.

Although there were no mandatory regulations in place, most clinics observed the voluntary rules put in place by this authority. It was not until the Human Fertility Act of 1990 that some formal government rules were established. The act mandates that physicians interested in practicing reproduction technology must apply for a license from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. That group’s License Committee determines for whom and under what conditions medical professionals could make use of in vitro and other forms of reproduction technology.

28 But following a national campaign contested by both sides, citizens ultimately supported the right of patients to access fertility therapies. In Great Britain, there was no government regulation of assisted reproduction technology from the first experiments in 1968 through 1985. Scientists and doctors were allowed to try different techniques as they saw fit. There were few formal restrictions on what they could do or how they employed new medical technology. In combination with commercial ventures, doctors and university professors were free to administer fertility treatments to childless couples.

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