By Kyle K Seo
This e-book, containing greater than four hundred pictures and illustrations, presents functional instructions for the beauty use of botulinum toxin sort A (BTA) in Asians. the diversities in BTA remedy of Asians and Caucasians with appreciate to acceptable dose, injection equipment, anatomic value, and symptoms are essentially defined. it truly is defined how the optimum dose and injection websites for the remedy of wrinkles fluctuate from the information endorsed in North the United States and Europe. targeted attention is given to the quickly increasing position that BTA therapy is taking part in in facial and physique contouring in accordance with leveraging the mechanism of disuse muscle atrophy. Examples which are rather suitable in Asians contain remedy of hypertrophy of the masseter and temporalis muscular tissues and calf muscle relief. extra chapters are dedicated to using BTA within the remedy of hyperhidrosis and the intradermal injection of BTA. The booklet might be an outstanding source for all dermatologists, plastic surgeons, beauty Physicians, and different clinicians who hire BTA in Asian sufferers.
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Extra resources for Botulinum Toxin for Asians
Immunogenicity/ Immunoresistance BoNT is a foreign protein and is therefore antigenic. Therefore, repeated injections of BoNT can cause clinical nonresponse to it due to the production of neutralizing antibodies. Neutralizing antibody formation may lead to a lack of efficacy in treatments using BoNT. Since the incidence of antibody formation is extremely low, it used to be a concern only in the therapeutic field where 100 U or more of BoNT-A is used at one session, not in the cosmetic field where the dose used at one session is below this.
According to the guidelines of the manufacture and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the BoNT-A should not be used more than 4 h after reconstitution with normal saline due to a decrease of potency. As the BoNT-A is high cost, however, practically most of doctors reuse stored BoNT-A after refrigerator storage. Based on my own experiences and data from innumerous papers on this point, it is the author’s conclusion that although potency may decrease to some extent by the refrigerator storage after reconstitution, it is not significant enough to noticeably reduce efficacy for the treatment of patients with BoNT-A.
1 Introduction 31 Fig. 1 Effective (O) and noneffective (X) wrinkles with botulinum toxin treatment treated by BoNT-A injections into the infraorbital area. I also experienced a major headache when I found that BoNT-A injection into the infraorbital area was not effective for effacing infraorbital horizontal lines after a total of three to four sessions at 1-week intervals. BoNT-A injections are not generally advised for the treatment of dynamic wrinkles of the nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and lines on the zygomatic and cheek areas which can be seen in the smile of George Clooney.