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By Marija Gimbutas

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Com Download Date | 11/15/12 12:08 PM 42 PART ONE: STUDY IN CHRONOLOGY FIG. 12. The Stublo hoard near Mizoch district of Dubno, Volynia. 1, 2, copper shaft-hole axes; 3, an ornament with spiral ends; 4, 5, neck-rings; 6-10, bracelets; 11-15, large earrings or bracelets. Scale approx. 1/3. After Antoniewicz, 1929. C. To eastern central Europe axes of Early Kuban type must have been brought by the invading Kurgan people. Some specimens are very close to Tsarskaja axes (for instance, axes from Fajsz, south of Budapest: Archeologiai firtesito, 1898; or from Brno-Lisen, Moravia: Benesovä, 1956).

Com Download Date | 11/15/12 12:07 PM INTRODUCTION 31 been studied already by a number of archaeologists in recent decades (Childe, Hawkes, Merhart, Milojcic, Miiller-Karpe, and others). I shall repeat them again with additions, extensions to the east, and with my own views on the problem of synchronization. The use of different labeling systems in central, northern, eastern central, western Europe, in the Caucasus, the Pontic area, the Urals and elsewhere causes great confusion for anyone attempting to view the chronological sequence over a large area.

B: copper earring from Cowlam, Yorkshire, northern England. After J. Evans, 1881. C: basket-shaped copper earring (2) and corded pot (1) from a grave at Sulechow, district of Krakow, southern Poland. Scale: pot approx. 1/6: earring 1/2. After Bartys, 1939. C. axes of eastern central Europe continued Ponto-Caucasian traits. Central European dagger forms show more variety regarding their origin. Tanged narrow daggers with a hook, distributed in the lower Tisza and Mures area (fig. 4, 2), as was already mentioned, certainly came from the Near East with the stream of many Near Eastern ornament types.

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