By W.H. Ransom
In recent times development disasters and the ensuing complaints and awards for damages have usually been within the information. the most important headlines can have been reserved for structural disasters and entire collapses. yet we must always now not fail to remember the fewer newsworthy mess ups akin to leaky roofs, damp partitions, dropped foundations and rotted trees. This publication offers sensible suggestions at the prevention of failure by way of describing the character and reason for the commonest defects in constructions, after which indicates how they need to be shunned in layout and development.
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Extra resources for Building Failures: Diagnosis and Avoidance
Even unreinforced concrete can distintegrate if attacked heavily by sea salts. The corrosion of reinforcement will lead generally to cracking of the concrete in the direction of the reinforcement, the position of which can be determined by means of a cover meter. Rust stains near such cracks will also often be seen. Rust staining, however, may sometimes appear not through corrosion of the reinforcement but because of the presence of pyrite in the aggregate. 5), particularly where cover to the steel is lower than desirable as in, for example, cladding panels of thin section.
1 Wetting/drying movements (approximately reversible) * Tangential † Radial movement is not always wholly reversible but usually approximately so. It depends, inter alia, upon the degree of wetting and drying, the precise composition of the material and the plane of measurement. 1 are those which could be caused by changes in moisture content likely to be encountered in environments common to normal buildings. This should be taken as a guide only and the specialist literature should be consulted if more precise values of movement under defined changes in the moisture regime are sought.
It can, as a consequence, be blown upwards to a greater extent and also distributed unevenly on structures. It is not uncommon for it to be blown under eaves and sarking, and to build up so that, on melting, considerable wetting of roof timbers takes place. Although it is not a major problem in the UK the effect of eccentricity of snow loads on pitched roofs needs to be consciously considered in design. Heavy snow accompanied by high winds and the subsequent drifting has caused partial or total collapse.