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For bcc metals, experiments in Fe-Si alloys (Sˇest´ak and Libovick´ y 1963a; 1963b) showed very different behaviour. The crss* is strongly dependent on temperature and on the orientation of the applied stress. Surface slip traces are sometimes diffuse and wavy, tending to lie parallel to non-crystallographic planes. Curiously, in the twenties, Taylor and his coworkers (1926; 1928) found that in the cases of α-iron and β-brass slips were not confined to low index crystal planes and thereby established evidence of deficiencies in the Schmid law.

P. Sethna (Phys. Rev. E55, 7669, 1997) have studied extensively the statistical mechanics of cracks. More specifically, these workers studied a class of models for brittle fracture, namely elastic theory models that have cracks but do not allow for plastic flow. Their conclusion is that such models display a transition to fracture under applied load that has similarities to the first-order liquid-gas transition. 40 Mechanical Properties of Metals Fig. 6. Typical behaviour of a simple elastic solid with damage.

The atomic structure of the tip will dictate whether the crack is a cleaver or an emitter, and the properties of the dislocations and their sources in the medium and their interactions with the crack will determine whether the core of the crack can ever be stressed sufficiently so that cleavage or emission is possible. 4. The Condition for Intrinsic Brittleness Rice and Thomson (1974) suggested that the condition for intrinsic brittleness in a material is the activation energy for dislocation emission from cracks.

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