By Aaron B. Caughey
Instances & thoughts Step 1: Pathophysiology assessment is helping scientific scholars organize for USMLE Step 1 through combining simple technological know-how subject matters with scientific info. operating via 88 scientific instances, the reader earnings adventure reading situations, learns vintage shows of universal ailments and syndromes, and integrates uncomplicated technology thoughts with scientific purposes. Sections conceal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hematology, oncology, endocrinology, rheumatology, copy, and neuroscience. instances are through USMLE-style questions with solutions and rationales. Thumbnail and Key proposal containers spotlight key proof. A better half web site deals totally searchable textual content on-line.
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Additional info for Cases & Concepts Step 1: Pathophysiology Review
The slow influx of cations during phase 4 depolarization drives the membrane potential closer to zero. When the membrane reaches the –40 mV threshold potential, voltage-gated Ca2ϩ/Naϩ channels open (phase 0 of the action potential), creating the upstroke of the action potential. Potassium efflux is then responsible for the repolarization of the pacemaker cell. Abnormal Impulse Formation Secondary to Abnormal Automaticity Altered impulse formation manifesting as increased automaticity can result in sinus tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia.
Abnormal Impulse Formation Secondary to Abnormal Automaticity Altered impulse formation manifesting as increased automaticity can result in sinus tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia. In ectopic (unifocal/multifocal) atrial tachycardia, foci of increased automaticity external to the SA node can override the intrinsic SA node pacemaker, resulting in an ECG with multiple P-wave morphologies. Each P-wave morphology corresponds to a different focus of increased automaticity. Antiarrhythmics suppress automaticity by one of three mechanisms: 1.
The vegetation is a sessile lesion composed of fibrin, platelets, WBCs, and microorganisms. After localized valvular infection and vegetation formation, the affected valve can degenerate and cause severe regurgitation and heart failure. The valvular infection can then spread locally to form fistulae, aortic aneurysms, conduction disease, and septic pericarditis. , brain emboli leading to stroke, coronary artery emboli leading to MI) and distant abscesses. Finally, stimulation of the immune system can result in glomerulonephritis and arthritis.