By Lower S. K.
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This publication had its nucleus in a few lectures given through one ofus (J. O'M. B. ) in a direction on electrochemistry to scholars of strength conversion on the Vniversity of Pennsylvania. It used to be there that he met a couple of humans informed in chemistry, physics, biology, metallurgy, and fabrics technological know-how, all ofwhom desired to understand whatever approximately electrochemistry.
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Extra info for Chemical Energetics. All about enthalpy, calorimetry and the First Law of Thermodynamics(en)(32s)
As the air descends, it undergoes compression from the pressure of the air above it. The surroundings are now doing work on the system, and because the process occurs to rapidly for the increased internal energy to be removed as heat, the compression is approximately adiabatic. The resulting winds are warm (and therefore dry) and are often very irritating to mucous membranes. ) In North America they are often called chinooks (or, in winter, "snow melters") when they originate along the Rocky Mountains.
Even large lakes can exert a moderating influence on the local weather due to water's relative insensitivity to temperature change. During the daytime the land and sea receive approximately equal amounts of heat from the Sun, but the much smaller heat capacity of the land causes its temperature to rise more rapidly. This causes the air above the land to heat, reducing its density and causing it to rise. Cooler oceanic air is drawn in to vill the void, thus giving rise to the daytime sea breeze.
According to the First Law ∆U = q + w, if this work is not accompanied by a compensating flow of heat into the system, its internal energy will fall, and so, therefore, will its temperature. ) Thus as air rises above the surface of the earth it undergoes adiabatic expansion and cools. The actual rate of temperature decrease with altitude depends on the composition of the air (the main variable being its moisture content) and on its heat capacity. 8 C° per km of altitude. Some applications of First-law-related topics Page 30 of 32 Santa Anas and chinooks: those warm, wild winds Just the opposite happens when winds develop in high-altitude areas and head downhill.