By Raymond J. Lukens Ph. D. (auth.)
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Additional info for Chemistry of Fungicidal Action
Vettable powders are the most popular form used in plant protection. Particle Size of Water Insoluble Formulations The ability of a fungicide to protect the surface from fungous attacks depends more upon the number of fungicide particles per unit area than upon weight per unit area (WILCOXON and MCCALLAN, 1931). Thus, efficacy increases with decrease in diameter of the fungicide particle. The reduction in particle size aids dilution and improves coverage of the fungicide. However, a minimum particle size is reached beyond which efficacy does not increase and may falloff (BURCHFIELD, 1967).
All droplets of243 [1. ) bounced. However, only 70 % of droplets of the same size bounced off the leaf when the surface tension was reduced to 45 dynes per cm. Obviously, droplet bouncing curtails deposition of fungicide. Small droplets that fail to bounce but retain a spherical shape may run off inclined surfaces to reduce deposition (HORSFALL,1956). At the other extreme of acute contact angles, droplets spread out into a film. The films of many droplets coalesce to cause a flow of solvent off the leaf.
The presence of these membranes has been documented by studies of osmotic phenomena, electron microscopy, and isolation. The nature of the transport of compounds across membranes has been vigorously pursued in recent times. Reviews are abundant. One review, which stresses the nature of membranes in relation to the permeation of fungicides, is called to the reader's attention (MILLER, 1962). Apparendy, the function of the cytoplasmic membrane is to allow full passage of desirable materials into the protoplasm and at the same time to exclude undesirable materials.