By Dr. Charles Tomasino
Monograph written for college kids of the cloth undefined, facing the chemistry and applied sciences of yarn and upholstery dyeing and completing.
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Extra resources for Chemistry & Technology of Fabric Preparation & Finishing
This section introduces the materials often used as warp sizes a n d the chemistry needed to remove them. 1. Sources of S i z i n g Compounds The following list summarizes the materials that can be used as warp sizes. Some of the base materials a r e used either alone or as additives to impart desirable properties to other bases. When designing the desizing step, it is important to know what base size was used. Each film-former h a s its own optimum conditions for effective removal. A knowledge of the chemistry of t h e film-formers will make it easier for one to grasp how to best desize specific fabrics.
Cottonseed Oil: Cottonseed oil contains 27% oleic, 50% linoleic and 21% palmitic acid. It too is used for food purposes like corn oil. Olive Oil: Olive oil contains 82% oleic acid and 8% linoleic acid. It is virtually pure triolein. It is a high grade salad oil, remaining liquid when refrigerated. It is also highly prized as a cooking oil. Palm Oil: Palm oil has a high content of a C16 saturated acid (40% palmitic acid). It also has a high content of oleic acid, 43%. This combination of fatty acids is ideal for making good toilet soaps.
STARCH Historically, starches and flours have been the film-formers of choice for textile sizing. The key difference between flours and starches is the gummy substance gluten, starches are flours which have had t h e gluten removed. Nature produces a wide variety of starches a s a white granular substance found in seeds, roots and stem piths of growing plants. Flours or meal is leached with water (to remove t h e gluten) leaving the white, free-flowing granule which h a s limited solubility in cold water.