Download Concise encyclopedia of special education by Cecil R. Reynolds, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen PDF

By Cecil R. Reynolds, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen

The Concise Encyclopedia of designated schooling, moment variation is a entire source for these operating within the fields of specified schooling examine and perform. that includes experiences of review tools and instructing ways, felony matters, overviews of particular studying disabilities, dozens of biographies, and extra, this entire table reference is an necessary consultant for pros, lecturers, and scholars alike. Named an American Library organization best 25 Reference of the 12 months in its First version, The Concise Encyclopedia serves as an immense reference for the schooling of  Read more... CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF certain schooling moment version; participants; PREFACE; A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; okay; L; M; N; O; P; Q; R; S; T; U; V; W; X; Y; Z; writer INDEX; topic INDEX

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Achievement need is generally measured through the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Many researchers have attempted to determine how achievement need develops. Crandall (1963) discovered that children with high achievement needs had mothers who rewarded achievement and achievement activities at an early age. These mothers also did not attend to their children’s pleas for help when the children faced a difficult problem. Crandall further concluded that middle- and upper-class parents were more likely to engage in behaviors that develop achievement motivation than were parents of lower economic status.

Because the child wants to please the parents but is not capable of fulfilling their expectations, he or she continually faces feelings of frustration, inadequacy, and other negative emotions such as guilt, disappointment, and uncertainty as to his or her place in the affections of the parents. On the other hand, some parents seem to overcompensate for their handicapped child. Some typical behaviors of these parents include setting goals that are too easily attained, praising or rewarding the child for work that is below his or her level of functioning, and intervening unnecessarily when the child is working on difficult tasks.

Parents may either overestimate or underestimate their child’s abilities and potential. Overestimates may be due to parents’ denial of their child’s problems. Such parents are prone to establish unreasonably high standards for their child’s behavior or development. Because the child wants to please the parents but is not capable of fulfilling their expectations, he or she continually faces feelings of frustration, inadequacy, and other negative emotions such as guilt, disappointment, and uncertainty as to his or her place in the affections of the parents.

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