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By Amin Ghali, R Favre

Concrete constructions should have sufficient security issue opposed to failure and also needs to show passable functionality in provider. This booklet is worried with the exams on stresses and deformations that may be performed in layout to make sure passable serviceability of strengthened concrete buildings, without or with prestressing.

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43) (indicated by a bar as superscript) because the forces ∆N and ∆M are gradually developed between the instants t0 and t. 44) i The subscript i in this equation refers to a prestressed steel layer; Aps is its cross-section area and yps its distance below the reference point O and ∆σpr is the reduced relaxation during the period t0 to t. 34) ). 5). The stress increments that develop during the period (t − t0) are as follows. 47) and in prestressed steel ∆σps = ∆σpr + Eps(∆εO + yps∆ψ). 48) The last equation gives the change in prestress due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation.

However, for analysis of the effects of relaxation of steel on stresses and deformations in prestressed concrete structures, it is often necessary to employ expressions that give development of the intrinsic relaxation with time. Such expressions are included in Appendix B. Relaxation increases rapidly with temperature. The values suggested in Creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of steel 7 Fig. 3 are for normal temperatures (20 °C). With higher temperatures, caused, for example, by steam curing, larger relaxation loss is to be expected.

Analysis of the timedependent effects on continuous beams and other statically indeterminate structures are discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. 22 Concrete Structures Creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressed steel result in prestress loss and thus in time-dependent change of the internal forces (the resultant of stresses) on the concrete cross-section. Generally, in a prestressed section, non-prestressed reinforcement is also present. The time effects of creep, shrinkage and relaxation usually produce a reduction of tension in the prestressed steel and of compression in the concrete and an increase of compression in the non-prestressed steel.

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