By Keith Hopkins
The large dimension of the Roman empire and the size of time it continued demand an figuring out of the associations which sustained it. during this booklet, Keith Hopkins, who's either classicist and sociologist, makes use of a number of sociological techniques and techniques to realize new insights into how conventional Roman associations replaced because the Romans got their empire. He examines the chain reactions because of elevated wealth; numerous points of slavery, specifically manumission and the price of freedom; the curious phenomenon of the political strength wielded by way of eunuchs at court docket; and within the ultimate bankruptcy he discusses the Roman emperor's divinity and the flow of unfaithful tales, that have been a foreign money of the political process. Professor Hopkins has built a thrilling method of social questions in antiquity and his e-book will be of curiosity to all scholars of historical background and of ancient sociology.
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Extra resources for Conquerors and Slaves (Sociological Studies in Roman History, Vol. 1)
Schwann i n RE sv Tributum a n d A . H . M . Jones, The Roman Economy, ed. P. A . B r u n t (Oxford, 1974) 151ft. 4 n 16 peasants* subsistence seed peasants' subsistence seed rent c b c tax a O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 IOO I I I I I I I I I I I a = rent and tax paid i n produce. b = produce sold i n the local market for cash to pay rent and tax i n money. c = produce sold i n the market to buy goods for peasants' consumption. * T h e scheme illustrates the large subsistence sector of the economy, the small non-agricultural sector, the equivalent functions of tax and rent, the low value of money exchange between peasant and town, the low average standard of living of peasants.
A n a l y s i s o f t h e R o m a n e c o n o m y has always t o take that solid u n m a r k e t e d core i n t o account. T h e m e t h o d s b y w h i c h t h e elite b o t h c r e a t e d a n d e x t r a c t e d t h e peasants' s u r p l u s p r o d u c e : taxes, r e n t a n d m a r k e t e x c h a n g e , c o n stituted a second i m p o r t a n t element i n the structure o f the R o m a n e c o n o m y . O f these t h r e e , i n t h e e m p i r e as a w h o l e , t a x a t i o n g r a d u a l l y c a m e t o be t h e largest i n v o l u m e , a n d t h e tax o n l a n d a n d c r o p s c o m p r i s e d a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l taxes; h o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be stressed t h a t t h e R o m a n s m a d e t h e i r way r a t h e r j e r k i l y f r o m a t r a d i t i o n o f p l u n d e r t o a stable system o f t a x a t i o n .
Silverman, Exploitation in rural central Italy', Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 12 (1970) 327ft. ); it is the earliest surviving such treatise from Rome, written i n the second century BC. T h e small shares given to share-croppers, 1/6-1/8 of the crop depending on the quality of the land, would keep them alive only if they also had land of their own to work. I n a subsequent publication, I shall discuss probable values of yield, labour input a n d household consumption i n R o m a n agriculture. It is worth stressing that land-owners a n d tenants are in many peasant societies overlapping not separate categories.