Download Constituent Questions: The Syntax and Semantics of Questions by Elisabet Engdahl (auth.) PDF

By Elisabet Engdahl (auth.)

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Extra info for Constituent Questions: The Syntax and Semantics of Questions with Special Reference to Swedish

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Cooper limits the use of storage to quantifiers. In natural language, it is typically the quantifiers which are responsible for scope distinctions and it is this property of quantifiers that is reflected in the storage technique. The technique we have just described for getting wide scope quantification is referred to by Cooper as free quantification. Free quantification is optional. A NP can always be interpreted in situ, which amounts to taking the option of not storing any binding operator. Controlled quantification on the other hand is obligatory.

In addition to the regular phrase structure rules, he adds the equivalent of a rule schema like in ( 41). (41) X ~ NP S where X E {O, R}. ) Something more is needed in order to generate well-formed WH clauses. In particular, we need to make sure there is a gap in the sentence and that this gap is correlated with the NP generated to the left of the sentence. Cooper briefly considers Gazdar's proposal, which as we recall, involves encoding the information about what type of constituent is missing into the syntactic node lables.

Rules introducing slashed categories are called linking rules. (10) S a ---'? S/a Slashed categories may be eliminated by a schema as in (11) which introduces a designated terminal t, the empty string.? (11) a/a ---'? t An instance of this schema would be NP/NP, dominating a gap. In this case, t, would be translated by a designated variable h of the appropriate type to translate NPs. We will write this as h(NP}. (10) and (11) in conjunction ensure that a sentence-initial constituent will always be matched with a gap of the appropriate type somewhere in the sentence.

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