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By Arul M. Britto, Michael J. Gunn

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The initial state of the soil in a (p', q) plot is (p~, 0). At a later point in the test, ar = p~ and aa = p~ + x (say), so the soil sample can now be represented by the point ((p~ " + xI3), x). Thus the ESP for the test is a line of slope 3 starting from (p~, 0) (see Fig. 30) . During the initial part of the test , before the ESP intersects the current yield locus at B (see the (p I, q) plot in Fig. 31), the soil behaviour is elastic. After point B the soil is yielding and each stress state on BF is associated with a new (enlarged) yield locus.

C) Yielding: the equation of the SSBS is now VA = (c1) ~trains: r + (A. - K) {In (2) - In (1 + (11 /M)2 ) }. 39). 80 Critical State Soil Mechanics [Ch. 5 can be used to calculate the strains in triaxial tests, provided that the appropriate equations for the SSBS and the flow rule are used. The established view is that there is not much difference between Cam-clay and modified Cam-clay for the purposes of making engineering predictions of behaviour. Broadly speaking this is true, but sometimes the difference can be more than would be expected.

It is only recently that the underlying mathematics has come to be understood. It is possible to identify three stages in how finite element techniques for stress analysis have been formulated and interpreted over the last three decades : (a) the method was regarded as an extension of matrix methods for the computerised analysis of structural frames. This method requires a 'stiffness matrix' describing the stiffness properties of one part of the structure. The only difference between a computer program for matrix analysis and one for finite element analysis is that the latter uses stiffness matrices which describe the stiffness of parts of a continuum.

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