By Jim E. Riviere, Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere
Many experimental equipment and mathematical modeling techniques rooted in disciplines outdoor of toxicology might be successfully utilized to estimating dermal absorption. Dermal Absorption versions in Toxicology and Pharmacology explores present ways and strategies that may be used to quantify dermal absorption with endpoints beneficial in either toxicology and pharmacology.
The ebook starts off with a assessment of easy ideas and the in vitro and in vivo experimental ways on hand for assessing dermal absorption of substances and chemical substances. this is often via insurance of mathematical or in silico types for quantitating percutaneous absorption and the functions of those ideas to the chance review technique. the rest of the e-book explores eventualities the place the original homes of the chemical compounds being studied or the matrix during which they're uncovered has to be thought of after which wraps up with a comparative research of chemical permeability in human and animal skin.
Many of the books masking this topic are only too entire and serve basically as reference works. This publication takes a unique strategy. Jim Riviere's editorial information guarantees that the knowledge is readable, obtainable, authoritative, and concise, making it the best source for familiarizing new researchers and scholars to the sphere and updating tested scientists.
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Extra resources for Dermal Absorption Models in Toxicology and Pharmacology
Invest. , 45:334–346. Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers, 2003, Opinion concerning the basic criteria for the in vitro assessment of dermal absorption of cosmetic ingredients. Updated October 2003, available at: http://europa. htm. C. , 1987, Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption of a lipophilic molecule (Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide), J. Invest. , 89:142–146. , 46:4362–4370. J. , 2000, Percutaneous penetration and metabolism of 2-nitrop-phenylenediamine in human and fuzzy rat skin, Toxicol.
Presence of intact intercellular lipid lamellae in the upper layers of the stratum corneum, J. Invest. , 88:714–718. G. (1976). Keratinization, J. Invest. , 67:20–25. A. (1991). W. ), Dermal and Ocular Toxicology: Fundamentals and Methods, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3–71. A. (1998). The integument, in H. Dieter-Dellman and J. ), Textbook of Veterinary Histology, Media, PA: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 303–332. E. (1990). Interspecies and interregional analysis of the comparative histologic thickness and laser Doppler blood flow measurements at five cutaneous sites in nine species, J.
This parameter has also been used as an end point in pharmacological experiments assessing autonomic drug activity (Rogers and Riviere, 1994). , 1992), with decreases in cumulative glucose utilization suggestive of direct chemical toxicity. However, glucose utilization may also be dependent on the extent of capillary perfusion because only cells that are perfused are capable of extracting glucose from the arterial perfusate (Rogers and Riviere, 1994). A decrease in glucose utilization is undoubtedly a manifestation of chemical activity; however, a chemically induced decrease in epidermal glucose utilization may be blunted by increased capillary perfusion.