By B.E.A. Jacobs
This booklet merits clients, brands and engineers by means of drawing jointly an total view of the expertise. It makes an attempt to provide the reader an appreciation of the level to which slurry shipping is almost immediately hired, the theoretical foundation for pipeline layout, the practicalities of layout and new advancements.
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Additional info for Design of Slurry Transport Systems
And is based on an equilibrium of upward transport, due to turbulance, and downward transport due to gravity. The mean concentration of each particle size and the values of C/C A enable the values of C for each fraction to be obtained. It is assumed that these proportions of the slurry contribute to the ‘vehicle’ part and the remainder are carried as a heterogeneous suspension. Initial conditions are provided by assuming that all the slurry forms the carrier, or vehicle, fluid and the pressure gradient is found by conventional methods for homogeneous fluids.
Therefore, there may be a ‘worst case’ degree of fineness for plugging in sloped pipelines after shutdown. A vertical slurry line may well have been used in the first application of hydrotransport, back in the gold rush days of the mid 1850s. It has since been taken over by interest in horizontal transport with the advent of commercial long-distance pipelining. Nevertheless, the vertical line offers the following possibilities: (a) It represents a means of negotiating rugged terrain, as a combination of horizontal and vertical legs may offer better steady state and restart characteristics than the equivalent sloping line.
Shear stresses (S 12, ) are developed on planes 1 and 2 as one might expect for a viscous fluid. A viscoelastic fluid will also develop a tensile stress normal to plane 1. If the hydrostatic pressure is superimposed, the tension is expressed as a normal stress difference . Some fluids are able to develop a second normal stress difference ( ) with tension normal to plane 3. They are known as third order viscoelastic fluids, referring to their one viscous and two elastic responses to shear. Elastic fluids are characterised by their ‘first and second normal stress coefficients’ ( , ), multiplied by the square of the shear rate to yield their respective normal stress differences.