By Gavin Reid
This 3rd version of Gavin Reid's well known e-book for non-specialist lecturers has been completely revised all through and supplemented with extra fabric to enhance the hyperlink among idea and perform. Dyslexia is a entire evaluate of the sector, offering greater than only a fast repair to fast problems by way of introducing the facts base for why specific techniques can be effective.Topics comprise interpreting, spelling, inventive writing, examine abilities, differentiation, identity of dyslexia, person studying kinds, the function of oldsters and coverage and provision for dyslexia. A concluding part presents info on extra help and assets to be used via lecturers. all through, the e-book emphasises that methods appropriate for college students with dyslexia also will profit the total classification, development upon the teacher's repertoire and empowering them to be greater academics.
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Additional info for Dyslexia (Special Educational Needs)
Checklists are not, in any form, deﬁnitive tools for diagnosis of dyslexia, but can be used as a preliminary screening to justify a more detailed assessment. Some checklists (such as those shown below) can provide a range of information that may produce a picture of the child’s strengths and weaknesses. Even these, however, are still very limited, and are no substitution for a comprehensive and contextual assessment. Checklist: Reading Comments Sight vocabulary Sound blending Use of contextual clues Attempting unknown vocabulary Eye tracking 40 Identiﬁcation and Assessment Difﬁculty keeping place Speech development Motivation in relation to reading material Word naming difﬁculty Omitting words Omitting phrases Omitting whole lines Checklist: Writing Comments Directional difﬁculty Difﬁculty associating visual symbol with verbal sound Liability to sub-vocalize sounds before writing Unusual spelling pattern Handwriting difﬁculty Difﬁculty with cursive writing Using capitals and lower case interchangeably and inconsistently Poor organization of work on page This form of assessment can provide some general data on the broad areas of difﬁculty experienced by the child – for example, the teacher may decide the child has a pronounced difﬁculty in the use of contextual cues; but this does not provide information as to why this difﬁculty persists and the kind of difﬁculties the pupil experiences with contextual cues.
Support and empathy are the answer and along with this goes the need to help the dyslexic person develop self-advocacy skills. It is important therefore, despite all the research and the accompanying innovations in practice, to consider individuals with dyslexia – their needs – and to listen to what they have to say. They are the ones who can point practitioners in the right direction. 27 Dyslexia In summary, this chapter has: x looked at a number of key research areas from neurological, cognitive and educational perspectives x acknowledged that every child and adult with dyslexia will x x x x x x x x x process information in a different way and may tend to utilize right-hemisphere strategies in developing literacy skills looked at inter-hemispheric transfer of information and the time delay in processing information discussed visual difﬁculties in dyslexia and the role of the magnocellular system acknowledged the role of hereditary factors and the importance of early identiﬁcation appreciated the new research relating to the role of the cerebellum in integration of processing activities considered the importance of developing and using identiﬁcation and intervention strategies that focus on phonological difﬁculties, as this is usually the main source of dyslexia identiﬁed the role of new research looking at the impact of glue ear in relation to dyslexia acknowledged that educational research and work relating to teaching and learning strategies, as well as the learning environment, can make a signiﬁcant difference recognized the recent work on developing dyslexia-friendly schools and providing strategies that can be readily accessed by teachers described the importance of promoting and developing advocacy skills for young people with dyslexia to provide them with an awareness of their challenges and how to deal with them.
The most comprehensive data related to teaching literacy to children diagnosed with dyslexia, revolves around the beneﬁts of phonological training methods, particularly if performed early in the literacy learning process. The phonological deﬁcit hypothesis is compatible with the success of these methods. Teaching methods that develop skills in grapheme–phoneme translation, as well as providing a basis for building a sight vocabulary, may be successful because they overcome the problems associated with the phonological deﬁcits.