By Chris R I Clayton, Jarbas Milititsky, Rick I Woods, Andrew Bond
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Extra info for Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures
The mechanism is complex because of forces related to the Poisson’s ratio (see Chapter 2). 10 Stress–Strain Graph for Testing a Concrete Cube This is further complicated (particularly for cubes) by the “platen restraint” that restrains the cube from expanding sideways at the top and bottom because it cannot slide across the machine platens that are compressing it. Nevertheless, when this standard test is used, the load is divided by the area to give a result for compressive strength. This is known as the “uniaxial” compressive strength because the load is only on one axis.
An object is electrically charged, if the negative charge in it is not equal to the positive charge. This situation occurs when charged particles are either removed from it, or added to it. In normal conductors, such as metals, the charged particles that move are particles 55 56 CHAPTER 6 Electrical properties called electrons. 25 × 1018 electrons flow into an object (and do not flow out again), it has a negative charge of 1 Coulomb (C). If a charged object comes near another charged object, a force acts between them.
These are magnetic forces. If the currents are in the same direction, the force is one of attraction between the wires. Because the force is at right angles to the flow of current, it will have no effect on the current in either wire. In order to increase the current in the wires, they must be moved. This is the basis of an electrical generator. If one of the wires is being turned around a shaft, it will move backward and forward relative to the other, and the current in it will be driven first in one direction, and then the other.