By Professor Dr. Erich Heinz (auth.)
The fabric of this quantity used to be initially deliberate to be integrated within the previous monograph Mechanics and Energetics of organic shipping. A separate and coherent therapy ofthe number of bioelectrical phenomena used to be thought of most advantageous, frequently for didactic purposes. frequently, the biologist has to assemble the rules of bioelectricity he wishes from diversified resources and on varied degrees. the current ebook intends to supply those rules in a extra uniform context and in a sort adjusted to the issues of a biol ogist, instead of of a physicist or electric engineer. the most emphasis is wear the molecular point through touching on the bioelectrical phenomena, corresponding to the membrane diffusion potentials, pump potentials, or redox potentials, to the houses of the membrane involved, and, so far as attainable, to precise steps of delivery and metabolism of ions and nonelectrolytes. Little house is dedicated to the known and regularly occurring illustration of bioelectrical phe nomena by way of electric networks, of an identical circuits with batteries, resistances, capacities and so forth. so as to elucidate the fundamental rules, the formal therapy is stored so simple as attainable, utilizing hugely Simplified types, in keeping with organic structures. The corresponding equations are derived in methods: kinetically, i. e. by way of the legislations of Mass motion, in addition to energetically, i. e. , when it comes to Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.
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Extra info for Electrical Potentials in Biological Membrane Transport
In addition, they provide us with a basis for rather simple experimental tests of whether a given pump system is electrogenic or electrically silent. Such tests will be discussed in the next paragraph. 1). As electrical and chemical potential differences may follow a different kinetic pattern, we shall see that the clear separation between chemical and electrical terms, as provided by the TIP procedure, is very helpful. The applicability of the LMA treatment may have a wider range than that of the TIP treatment, but it is also limited to a range in which the highly simplified equations as used in the above treatment are valid.
As, however, in passive antiport systems transient states are presumably very short-lived, the simpler steady state equations usually give sufficient information. To illustrate these points, the steady state equation will be developed briefly for the Na+/Ca2+-antiport system. Its rheogenicity depends on the electrovalency of the ions (Zi) involved as well as on the stOichiometry (Vi) of their coupling in the exchange reaction. The antiport process is and its rate J. = k. ( _ [eN'<]" t z~)'N' [Na+]" ~ -ZNa ) VNa 2 (68) .
This does not mean that the redox PD can as such always be measured as a membrane PD. It may, however, affect the membrane PD under special circumstances which we shall try to describe in the following. A suitable model may be based on an H+ transport loop taken from the "chemiosmotic" system of Mitchell (1966), as depicted in Fig. 9. It consists of two well-stirred compartments separated by a barrier which is permeable only to a hydrogen carrier, SH 2 in the hydrogenated, and S in the dehydrogenated form.