Download Food Engineering Handbook : Food Engineering Fundamentals by Theodoros Varzakas; Constantina Tzia PDF

By Theodoros Varzakas; Constantina Tzia

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For example, the pressure of saturated steam is necessary to estimate its temperature, specific volume, and other thermodynamic properties from the available literature steam tables. In a generalized approach, food materials can be said to consist of water and total solids, with the latter comprising soluble and insoluble matter. In this way, composition can be expressed in a wet or a dry basis. In “wet basis,” the composition of a mixture of n constituents is expressed by the mass fractions of all individual components (including water) by the relation X i ,w .

A. a. 73% As can be seen from the above example, 45% of magma is recycled to the crystallizer after separation. This is a common practice in food engineering design since recycles are used for raw material and energy conservation increasing the overall efficiency of the process. However, in real situations, the feed solution includes impurities or inert solids and recycling favors accumulation of these substances within the process, thus leading to poor-quality final products. , by a chemical reaction) the unwanted impurities, if this is economically justified.

From the above types of energy, heat is the most important and it would not be exaggerating to say that it is involved in almost any food processing. Therefore, it will be discussed separately. 1 Heat Heat is always transmitted from a body to another at a lower temperature. When thermal equilibrium is reached, that is the temperatures of the two bodies are equal, there is no heat transmission between them. , it always appears in transfer from one position to another). , its pressure and temperature, velocity or position, respectively).

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