By Olga Soffer, Nikolai Dmitrievich Praslov (auth.), Olga Soffer, Nikolai Dmitrievich Praslov (eds.)
From the yank facet I went to the USSR for the 1st time in 1982 to wait the eleventh assembly of the foreign Union for Quaternary examine (INQUA) held on the Moscow nation collage. at the moment family members among our nations have been whatever yet congenial and lots of regulations have been put on our viewing the archaeological and paleontological collections and labora tory amenities. This was once no longer the suitable weather for the loose trade of principles wanted for significant examine. notwithstanding, it was once seen to us that the strained family didn't expand to clinical discussions among students. We left that assembly good acutely aware that if the issues of prehistoric previous World-New international relationships have been to be resolved, it is going to ultimately require cooperative study efforts in the international neighborhood of archaeologists. at the moment, the pre-Clovis challenge in New international archaeology was once most efficient within the minds of many North American researchers: instrument expertise and assemblages have been being studied as a potential technique of constructing cultural relationships around the Bering Strait, Clovis websites and massive kills have been being checked out with new principles for interpretation, and New global researchers discovered that to unravel those questions that they had to get to grips with the archaeological list of northeast Asia. an opportunity assembly of the author with Olga Soffer in 1983 ended in severe discussions of the websites at the Russian or East eu Plain.
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Extra resources for From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic—Paleo-Indian Adaptations
This environmental change brought about a demise of the mammoths, a dramatic increase in bison populations, and a reorientation of subsistence strategies to the taking of bison. American scholars have documented a great diversity in Paleo-Indian subsistence strategies (see, for example, Chapters 17, 19-21, this volume). Subsistence strategies of Eastern groups were based on plant resources and on hunting of nonmigratory smaller game. In the West, on the other hand, specialized bison hunting predominated and was only augmented by plant resources and the meat of smaller animals.
PROBOSCIDEAN HUNTING AND DEATHS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT Although there is no ethnographically known group who exploited elephants to any meaningful extent prior to the advent of the ivory trade, the presence of large numbers of mammoths at Upper Paleolithic and smaller but impressive numbers at Paleo-Indian sites has been assumed to indicate that such reliance on proboscideans did exist in the late pleistocene. Noting biological and morphological similarities between the extinct mammoths and their closest present-day equivalents (Loxodonta and Elephas), a number of scholars have assumed etological analogues and looked at the demographic composition of mammoths found at the sites as a clue to hunting methods employed in the past.
106. 107. 108. 109. 110. GIN GIN GIN GIN GIN GIN Ill. 112. 113. ll4. ll5. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. GIN 2529 LE 2800 LE 2801 LE 2949 LE 2950 LE 2951 LE 2969 LE 3276 LE 3279 LE 3282 LE 3289 122. LE 3286 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. LE LE LE LE LE LE 129. 130. AA 4799 AA 4800 131. AA 5590 132. 133. 134. LE 2030 LE 1599 LE 1509 135. 136. 137. 138 139. 140. 141. 142. LE 1403 LE 1637 LE 1704A LE 1704B GIN 2532 GIN 2531 TA 34 LE 1638 143. 144. TA 154 GIN 89 1870 2534 2533 2530 2528 2527 3277 3280 3281 3282 3290 3292 Site, dated medium Kostenki I, Layer 1 Bone charcoal, general layer Bone charcoal, general layer Earth lodge A, bone charcoal Earth lodge lh, bone charcoal Earth lodge lh, bone charcoal Second sample from earth lodge A, bone charcoal Earth lodge l Square lh-70, mammoth tooth #154 Object with wall, earth lodge #153 Mammoth tooth fragments, tooth #159 Pit pr-72, mammoth tooth #150 Earth lodge sq.