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By ur-Rahman, Atta- Reitz, Allen B. Choudhary, M. Iqbal

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Once released it can act on ionotropic and metatropic receptors, two general recep- Mechanisms of Neuroprotection Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 5 21 tors for glutamate. Metabotropic receptors are linked to G-proteins, which activate phospholipase C (PLC) or adenylcyclase (AC). Activated PLC catalyses the cleavage of L-3phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol–1,4,5, trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 is responsible for intracellular release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum.

They have a large structure variability and more of than 600 isoflavones have been identified. The primary dietary sources of isoflavones are soybeans (Glycine max) and soyfoods. It is often stated in the literature that many legumes and fruits and vegetables contain isoflavones; however, although these statements are technically correct they are misleading, because the amount in these foods is so small as to be nutritionally irrelevant. In contrast to many phytoallexins (substances that are formed by host tissue in response to physiological stimuli, infectious agents, or their products and that accumulate to levels that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms), isoflavones are always present in significant quantities in soybeans, because one of their primary functions is to stimulate nodulation genes in soil bacteria called Rhizobium.

3). Neuroprotective Effects in Cell Culture and Animal Models The effects of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (SPA) on lipid peroxidation, 1,1diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and cognitive deficits were examined. SPA was shown to exhibit DPPH radical scavenging activities and to effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe2+ and ascorbic acid in rat brain homogenates. Furthermore, SPA Mechanisms of Neuroprotection Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 5 37 markedly enhanced cognitive performance, assessed by passive avoidance test in ethanoltreated mice.

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