By Daniel S Freed; Karen K Uhlenbeck; American Mathematical Society.; Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, N.J.) (eds.)
The data of the interactions of photons with hadrons has significantly greater with the research of high-energy lepton-proton collisions at HERA. the implications at the partonic interactions of photons are summarized compared to photon-nucleon, two-photon, and proton-antiproton experiments
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Extra info for Geometry and quantum field theory
204–205) Kant maintained that geometry and arithmetic differ both in their methods and in their objects. Therefore, the axioms that for Kant are grounded in the synthesis of the productive imagination concern only magnitudes in general. However, Kant’s cognition in intuition, unlike Helmholtz’s, does not presuppose the speciﬁcation of the magnitude of a quantity. This is the issue of arithmetic. The answer to the question how big something is requires not so much construction in pure intuition, as 18 1 Helmholtz’s Relationship to Kant calculation.
The aprioricity of the axioms of (Euclidean) geometry is ruled out by the possibility of obtaining a more general system of hypotheses by denying supposedly necessary constraints in the form of outer intuition. Although I believe that Helmholtz’s account of spatial intuition can be made compatible with a relativized conception of the a priori, my suggestion is to reconsider the importance of the philosophical debate about the foundations of geometry for the actual development of such a conception.
Friedman reconsiders the Kantian aspect of Helmholtz’s theory for the following reason. The core idea of Helmholtz’s geometrical papers relates to his previous studies in the physiology of vision, because he believed that the distinction between voluntary and external movement, and the capacity to reproduce external changes by moving our own body or the objects around us, lies at the foundation of geometrical knowledge. In particular, Helmholtz pointed out the empirical origin of the notion of a rigid body: solid bodies or even parts of our own body work as standards 12 1 Helmholtz’s Relationship to Kant of measurement according to the observed fact that such bodies do not undergo any remarkable changes in shape and size during displacements.