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Extra resources for Glasses and Amorphous Materials
This is clearly a serious overestimate of the length of furnace occupied by melting batch. Several factors cause this serious error. First, the thermal properties of the batch vary with temperature, largely due to them reacting; second, the batch blanket does not remain of constant thickness as reaction occurs; third, flow of liquid produced by reaction and convection of hot gases can both increase the rate of heat transfer. Jack and Jacquest (1958) studied the implications of the simple constant property model considered above and showed that minimum melting length would be given by a particular blanket thickness for a given output.
SiCL Figure 1-14. The driving force for dissolution of residual sand grains in a binary melt with 34% soda when melted at 1400 °C, assuming equilibrium at the silicamelt interface. One of the most notable contributions not mentioned is that of Kroger who, with his colleagues, made a detailed thermogravimetric study of reactions in soda-lime-silica batches between 1933 and 1957. Some of the problems encountered in such work may be illustrated by a brief examination of Kroger's work. Such experiments reveal how quickly the carbonates decompose but nothing directly about the reaction of the silica or other refractory oxides.
Figure 1-11 shows the most useful way of dividing the whole process; each of these stages is considered in the sections that follow. 1500 i - Q Temperature 1000 Dissolve sand | BAICH-hHLb • /I 500 - "Ij\ Remove bubbles ~|SEED-FF Homogenize I 2 3 Time in h Figure 1-11. Schematic diagram of the stages of glass melting. Region (i) is where the batch has not yet reached reaction temperature and (ii) shows the time occupied by vigorous reaction. 1 Batch Heating Melting reactions can be detected in common silicate batches at about 400 °C 36 1 Classical Glass Technology but usually are not sufficiently rapid to be important until the temperature reaches about 600 °C.