By Xie George Xu, Keith F. Eckerman
During the last few a long time, the radiological technology group has built and utilized a number of versions of the human physique for radiation safety, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medication treatment. The guide of Anatomical types for Radiation Dosimetry presents a complete assessment of the advance and alertness of those computational types, often called "phantoms." An bold and unprecedented undertaking, this pioneering paintings is the results of a number of years of making plans and education related to sixty four authors from the world over. It brings jointly techniques and data sanctioned by means of the overseas fee on Radiological safety (ICRP) and records forty years of background and the growth of these concerned with state of the art paintings with Monte Carlo Codes and radiation defense dosimetry. This quantity was once partially spurred on via the ICRP’s key choice to undertake voxelized computational phantoms as criteria for radiation security reasons. it truly is a useful reference for these operating in that region in addition to these utilising or constructing anatomical types for a a couple of scientific purposes. Assembling the paintings of approximately all significant phantom builders all over the world, this quantity examines: The background of the examine and improvement in computational phantoms distinct debts for every of the well known phantoms, together with the MIRD-5, GSF Voxel relations Phantoms, NCAT, UF Hybrid Pediatric Phantoms, VIP-Man, and the most recent ICRP Reference Phantoms actual phantoms for experimental radiation dosimetry The smallest voxel measurement (0.2 mm), phantoms built from the chinese language obvious Human undertaking functions for radiation safeguard dosimetry related to environmental, nuclear strength plant, and inner infection exposures scientific purposes, together with nuclear drugs treatment, CT examinations, x-ray radiological picture optimization, nuclear drugs imaging, exterior photon and proton remedies, and administration of breathing in smooth image-guided radiation remedy Patient-specific phantoms used for radiation therapy making plans related to Monte Carlo code platforms: GEANT4 and EGS destiny wishes for examine and improvement comparable information units can be found for obtain at the authors’ site. The breadth and intensity of this paintings allows readers to procure a different feel of the whole clinical approach in computational phantom improvement, from the belief of an concept, to the id of unique anatomical information, to suggestions of assorted computing difficulties, and at last, to the possession and sharing of leads to this groundbreaking box that holds quite a bit promise.
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Additional info for Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering)
This code was used to implement several adult and pediatric voxel phantoms to study second cancer effects in patient treated with external protons (Chapter 25). The use of GEANT4 code for treatment planning with patient specific phantoms is described in Chapter 27. This chapter also includes a discussion of an effort to model organ motions. 137,138 The code covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to about 1 GeV. A mixed procedure is used for the simulation of electron and positron interactions.
The segmentation of the red bone marrow is also challenging. Consequently, its dose is nearly always calculated empirically because it is not easy to model it directly in the phantom.
Several software algorithms were systematically developed to automate the deformation and organ overlap detection that were based entirely on about 126 sets of triangle meshes. The RPI Adult Male and Female phantoms are mesh-based BREP phantoms. 89 The mesh models had to be converted to voxels to work with Monte Carlo codes that only handle CSG shapes. 90,91 They created the BREP phantom series, called UFH-NURBS phantoms using the following steps. First, they segmented patient-specific CT image data from which they then generated polygonal meshes.