Download How Did We Find Out About Superconductivity? by Isaac Asimov PDF

By Isaac Asimov

Discusses the heritage of the advance of superconductive fabrics and explores the matter of discovering fabrics which are superconductive at larger temperatures.

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1 Brief historical sketch The treatment of the self-stress of a curved segment initiated by Brown (1964) allowed assessment of the accuracy of the most refined line tension models. 1). The analytical treatment of the solutions was, however, too complex to be carried out in the general case. Thus, two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the equilibrium shapes of dislocations segments bowing under stress in their slip plane were initiated by the end of the 1960s (Foreman, 1967; Bacon, 1967). To simplify the calculations the curved segments were decomposed into a succession of straight segments connected by 24 BAC K G RO U N D A N D D E F I N I T I O N S nodes.

The interaction of dislocations gliding in parallel slip planes is called the selfinteraction when the Burgers vectors are colinear (Fig. 3a) and the coplanar interaction when they are not (Fig. 3b). In both cases, the mutual trapping of attractive dislocations may result in dipole formation. Self- and coplanar interactions in a single slip plane may lead respectively to direct annihilation or to the formation of a fully glissile segment having the third coplanar Burgers vector. The probability of occurrence of such configurations is, however, quite low when dislocations glide but cannot climb.

In addition, there may be interaction stresses with other dislocation lines, τint , stresses arising from other obstacles than dislocations, τobs , and image stresses, τim . 18) Additional contributions can be added when necessary. The lattice resistance requires a specific treatment (see next section) and should preferably not be included in eqn. 18. When the effective stress τ ∗ on a dislocation is positive, it governs its velocity. 2 Governing mechanisms The velocity of a single dislocation is modelled in different manners according to the magnitude of the effective stress and the nature of its interactions with various crystal defects or the lattice itself.

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