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By Katherine Hawley

Katherine Hawley explores and compares 3 theories of patience -- persistence, perdurance, and degree theories - investigating the ways that they try and account for the area round us. Having supplied invaluable rationalization of its major opponents, she concludes by way of advocating level concept.

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The idea that an object must have some non-relational properties arises naturally from the belief that an object is composed, somehow, of its properties, for it is hard (though perhaps not impossible) to make sense of the idea that an object is composed of the relations it bears to other things, or of those relations plus a very limited intrinsic nature. Objects seem to fade away if we combine the relations-to-times account with this ‘bundle-of-properties’ view of objects, and those who are tempted by this view of objects have a good reason to reject this account of change.

As Trenton Merricks points out, adverbialism needs the ‘further (plausible) claim that contradiction arises only when . . complementary properties are exemplified in the same way’ (1994: 169). The thought behind adverbialism is that the banana can be green in a Monday way and yellow in a Friday way, without fear of contradiction, whereas it would be contradictory for the banana to be both green in a Monday way and yellow in a Monday way. Merricks says that it is ‘plausible’ that adverbial modification dissolves contradiction—why is this?

7 Mark Johnston (1987), E. J. Lowe (1988b), and Sally Haslanger (1989) independently propose a third solution to the problem of change. They claim that instantiation—the possession or having of properties—is time-indexed, or relative to times, although properties themselves are not. This strategy, called adverbialism, says that for O to have F at t is for O to have-at-t the property F—for O to have F tly. Is there any reason for endurance theorists to prefer adverbialism over the relations-to-times account?

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