By Committee on Biomolecular Materials and Processes, National Research Council
Scientists have lengthy wanted to create artificial structures that functionality with the precision and potency of organic platforms. utilizing new thoughts, researchers are actually uncovering ideas that can let the construction of man-made fabrics which may practice projects as unique as organic platforms. to evaluate the present paintings and destiny promise of the biology-materials technology intersection, the dept of power and the nationwide technological know-how beginning requested the NRC to spot the main compelling questions and possibilities at this interface, recommend thoughts to handle them, and view connections with nationwide priorities comparable to healthcare and financial development. This ebook provides a dialogue of ideas governing biomaterial layout, an outline of complicated fabrics for chosen features resembling strength and nationwide safety, an evaluation of biomolecular fabrics learn instruments, and an exam of infrastructure and assets for bridging organic and fabrics technology.
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Additional resources for Inspired by Biology: From Molecules to Materials to Machines
Create new arrays of medical diagnostic assays that can predict susceptibility to and progression of disease. • Deploy new materials that will protect people and material assets from chemical and biological contamination. • Design and fabricate new materials that capture the superlative properties of adhesion in a gecko foot or the elegant strength in design of a diatom or mollusk shell. These seemingly futuristic touchstones represent some of the future impact that could be realized through the understanding and exploitation of functional properties of biomolecular materials.
Building block chirality is thought to be very important in the hierarchical assembly of many such biological structures, but the process underlying the order of various subprocesses in this type of assembly is poorly understood. By contrast, assembly in hard materials such as ceramics and metals is not typically hierarchical, and in soft materials and complex fluids such as surfactants and block copolymers the hierarchy is often limited to the self-organization of secondary aggregates into ordered liquid crystalline lattices.
All viruses are made up of protein coats (called capsids) that protect the viral genome. Capsids are self-assembled from groups of proteins called capsomers, which interact noncovalently to create the capsid structure; in some viruses, chaperones help to direct their assembly. In about half of all viruses, the capsid is roughly spherical and takes the shape of a perfect, 20-sided polyhedron or icosahedron composed of integer multiples of 60 proteins. Influenza, herpes simplex (HSV-1), human rhinovirus (which causes the common cold), and hepatitis B are all examples of icosahedral viruses.