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By K. Sakai

The 2 issues of integration of structural and sturdiness layout, and integration of concrete applied sciences in terms of international environmental matters are drawn jointly during this book.

summary: the 2 topics of integration of structural and sturdiness layout, and integration of concrete applied sciences when it comes to worldwide environmental concerns are drawn jointly during this e-book

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In such cases proper detailing may be required to assure minimum structural performance. Some detailing to prevent unexpected or unacceptable material deterioration may be necessary. Proper detailing can simplify the analysis. For example minimum reinforcement can maintain crack width within a certain limit, so that even a simple design calculation will be able to predict the extent of reinforcement corrosion accurately. 4 Interaction between limit states caused by different actions Among actions of ordinary and accidental loadings, a limit state caused by one action is generally not affected by the others.

Structural analyses, such as linear and nonlinear analyses, static and dynamic analyses, and one-, two- and three-dimensional analyses, are listed as appropriate structural analyses and specified according to limit states. The main feature of limit state design concept is that clear description of limit states. The definition of limit states is that structural performance beyond limit states becomes worse distinctly. For example, aesthetics of a structure will be affected beyond a certain crack width, or a structure will collapse beyond a certain amount of deflection.

Retrieval of capacity and function may be possible by repair and strengthening. In the case of salt attack, the key lies in how much the cross sectional area of steel bar is reduced. In general, it is very difficult to prevent the invasion of chloride ion, but from the surface observation it is relatively easy to detect the rusting of steel bar in concrete at the early stage. Then, repair and strengthening may be conducted in time before collapse of the structures. 6 Bridging between structural design and durability design In the current JSCE design methods, the structural design is rather independent to durability.

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