By Costas Laoudias
This publication describes the layout of low-voltage analog built-in filters utilizing present mirrors, probably the most universal construction blocks either in analog and mixed-signal VLSI circuits, supplying the benefits of low-voltage operation, derivation of resistorless topologies and digital adjustment potential in their frequency features. numerous layout examples are defined, utilizing present mirrors that satisfy the necessities of contemporary low-power instant and biomedical purposes, comparable to common biquadratic clear out topologies, advanced filters for Bluetooth/ZigBee low-IF receivers and Wavelet filters for cardiac sign detection. The experimental effects from the fabricated chips may also be awarded, displaying their software in smooth low-voltage low-power transportable devices.
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Extra info for Integrated Filters for Short Range Wireless and Biomedical Applications
15. T. A. Al-Qahtani, “Current-mode universal filters using unity-gain cells”, Electronics Letters, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1077–1079, Jun. 1996. 16. O. Gunes, F. Anday, “Realization of voltage and current-mode transfer functions using unity-gain cells”, International Journal of Electronics, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 209–213, Aug. 1997. 17. A. Alzaher, M. Ismail, “Current-mode universal filter using unity-gain cells”, Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 25, pp. 2198–2200, Dec. 1999. 18. M. R. H. Lee, “New universal biquad filters using only two unity-gain cells”, International Journal of Electronics, vol.
6 has been employed in the design of the filter. The behavior of the complex filter in Fig. 11 is evaluated through simulation results, by employing the Virtuoso Analog Design Environment of the Cadence software. 35 mm CMOS process have been used in simulations. 2 V, the values of the NMOS transistors aspect ratios were 5 mm/1 mm for Mn1i (i ¼ 1,2,. 6 mm for Mn2i (i ¼ 1,2,. ). The PMOS transistors have an aspect ratio 15 mm/2 mm. 45 kO. 20b) Cj ¼ where Cpi and Lpj are the component values of the passive prototype.
4 GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) frequency band. 2 Kbit/s. ZigBee is another one low-cost, low-power, short range wireless standard. It operates either on ISM band using 16 channels with 5 MHz bandwidth per channel or at the lower frequency band of 902–828 MHz, using ten channels with 2 MHz bandwidth per channel. Since these two standards are operating in the same frequency band, then the RF front-end of the low-IF receiver can be shared between the two operating modes. e. equal to the channel bandwidth, while in ZigBee mode the filter bandwidth must be equal to 2 MHz.