By Ana Elizabeth Jardón Hernández
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Extra info for International Migration and Crisis: Transition Toward a New Migratory Phase
S. , losing one’s job due to abandonment, and the ﬁnancial inability to continue paying one’s bills. S. S. for a certain number of years. S. On this issue, Berumen et al. (2011: 8) have proposed a conﬁguration that consists in two moments. The ﬁrst, from 1995 to 2000, was a time when, far from impeding undocumented migration, border security controls actually generated conditions that encouraged potential migrants to persist in their attempts to cross the border until they succeeded. The second moment, in contrast, occurred between 2000 and 2010, when the intensiﬁcation of migratory controls, the application of sanctions to reoffenders, and the increasingly high risks and costs of attempting to migrate, combined to dramatically reduce the number of attempts.
S. rose markedly. Estimates for the year 2003 speak of approximately 156,000 deportations, but in 2008 this ﬁgure increased to around 247,000, and surpassed 307,000 in 2012 (Meza 2014). S. through the repatriation points located in Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila and Sonora (INM 2014). S. S. S. government has implemented to protect national workers in a time of crisis. S. S. S. 2 million in 2007 (Corona/Huerta 2009). This means that the presence of Mexicans multiplied approximately fourteen times over such period.
S. n = 132 Fig. S. 0 2007 2008 Undocumented 2009 2010 2011 Documented Fig. S. between 2007 and 2011 by legal status in the most recent trip. 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2007 Undocumented n = 20 El Plan Huizcatepec 2008 2009 2010 2011 Documented n = 34 El Centro El Rincón El Cerro Fig. S. by neighborhood and legal status, 2007–2011. Source Elaborated by the author based on the 2011-ESF Illinois, New Jersey and Pennsylvania “were unable to cross” after returning to spend the winter in their community of origin.