Download Introduction to geometrical optics by Milton Katz PDF

By Milton Katz

This paintings is the fruits of 25 years of training geometrical optics. the quantity is geared up such that the one round refracting floor is the fundamental optical point. round mirrors are taken care of as distinct situations of refraction, with an analogous appropriate equations. skinny lens equations persist with as combos of round refracting surfaces whereas the cardinal issues of the thick lens make it comparable to a skinny lens. finally, one set of vergence equations are acceptable to most of these components. The chapters are dedicated to in-depth remedies of stops, scholars and ports; magnifiers, microscopes, telescopes, and digicam lenses; ophthalmic tools; resolving energy and MTF; trigonometric ray tracing; and chromatic and monochromatic aberrations. There are over a hundred labored examples, four hundred homework difficulties and four hundred illustrations.

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As the eye moves toward the marginal rays, the image appears to slide along the caustic to B. 3 is an illustration of the caustic for a point is immersed in a block of glass. The image slides along the caustic from M'P to B. When the line of sight nearly grazes the surface, the image is seen at position B. The images are virtual. 2 EXACT RAY TRACING THROUGH A PARALLEL PLATE Glass plates, such as windows, or layers of immiscible liquids in a beaker, comprise systems of two or more parallel interfaces.

From Eq. 3740 # 0 / =279469mm Will a distant object observed through a thick glass plate appear to move as the plate is tilted? Suppose the object is near? 5. 4 a) Path of a ray through a parallel plate in a uniform medium, (b) Displacement of the ray. 5 a) The direction of the image of a distant object is unchanged by a tilted plate, (b) A near object M, however, appears to be shifted to position M'. 4 REFRACTION THROUGH PRISMS A prism comprises two inclined plane surfaces that meet to form an edge.

The refracted angle and index in image space are a[ and nj. The subscript 2 is used at the second interface, and so on. This is expressed as follows: ^ sin rXj = n/ sin cc/ where j is the current surface. The image medium or space following refraction at surface j becomes the object medium or space for the next surface, j+1. Thus, nj'= nj+1. At the first surface, j = 1, and so, nj = n2. For plates with parallel surfaces, surrounded by a uniform medium, the angle of refraction at surface j equals the angle of incidence at surface j+1.

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