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By J. Guffroy

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Indeed, as noted above, the styles of artifacts change through time, thus providing another useful distinction to help us date what we discover. Eventually, by matching, say, our pot fragment with one found at another site – that one too from a well-defined level – we can link the sequence of strata at our site with the sequence at that other site. This study of the strata of occupation is known as stratigraphy. If we can determine which strata come earlier or later than others, we are able to place them, and the objects found in them, in a relative sequence.

Domesticated sheep and goat then appeared in great numbers, becoming a dietary staple. The hunting of wild animals diminished considerably. Çayönü has yielded striking evidence for early metallurgy. Native copper and malachite, found nearby, were worked in Subphase 2, with an intensification in metallurgy in Subphases 3 and 4; subsequently, metalworking declined. The ore was hammered unheated to create such tools as pins, hooks, and drills – a simple start to a technology that would later prove so important.

The concept of “city” thus implies social distinctions among its populace. Just as the urban–rural contrast denotes difference, so too within the city we find contrasts between rulers (elite groups) and the ruled, between richer and poorer. Differences in work, with specializations of occupation, some more prestigious than others, also contribute to the social hierarchy. In addition, inhabitants might be marked by ethnic and religious differences. ” These social distinctions can affect the appearance and layout of a city, with monumental temples and palaces erected in certain areas, but with commercial and industrial establishments and lower-class residential neighborhoods grouped elsewhere.

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