By Catherine Keane
In his 16 verse Satires, Juvenal explores the emotional provocations and pleasures linked to social feedback and mockery. He uses conventional regularly occurring parts equivalent to the first-person speaker, ethical diatribe, narrative, and literary allusion to create this new satiric preoccupation and subject. Juvenal defines the satirist determine as an emotional agent who dramatizes his personal reaction to human vices and faults, and he in flip goals to have interaction different people's emotions. Over the process his profession, he adopts a sequence of rhetorical personae that signify a spectrum of satiric feelings, encouraging his viewers to give some thought to satire's right emotional mode and serve as. Juvenal first bargains his signature indignatio with its linked pleasures and discomforts, then attempts on subtler personae that recommend dry detachment, callous entertainment, nervousness, and different affective states.
As Keane exhibits, the satiric feelings should not purely present in the author's rhetorical performances, yet also they are an immense a part of the human farrago that the Satires purport to regard. Juvenal's poems discover the dynamic operation of feelings in society, drawing on varied old literary, rhetorical, and philosophical resources. every one poem uniquely engages with assorted texts and ideas to bare the unsettling powers of its emotional mode. Keane additionally analyzes the "emotional plot" of every e-book of Satires and the structural good judgment of the complete sequence with its wide selection of matters and settings. From his well-known offended tirades to his extra perplexing later meditations, Juvenal demonstrates a permanent curiosity within the dating among emotions and ethical judgment.
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Extra resources for Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions
Mattern-Parkes, “Seneca’s Treatise ‘On Anger,’ ” explains that this is the ingrained attitude Seneca was trying to combat in On Anger; his advice, compared with Plutarch’s in On Controlling Anger, is quite dismissive of worldly expectations, as van Hoof shows (“Strategic Differences”). The ancient Greek context is similarly status conscious (see Konstan, “Aristotle on Anger,” and, for more extensive social contextualization, Kalimtzis, Taming Anger). ’ ” 15. Nussbaum imagines that for a Roman man anger would be “hooked up to a feeling of manly pride, and to a quasi-erotic excitement, as he prepares to smash the adversary” (Upheavals of Thought, 160).
Highet, who was Juvenal’s greatest champion in the age of burgeoning Latin literary scholarship, saw in the sequence of books a reflection of the poet’s aging process. 60 This is the kind of thinking that made Highet the persona school’s straw man. Yet in persona studies, too, the phases of Juvenal’s career are characterized according to the rhetorical and emotional tone that dominates the verse. Only the personal causes for change are removed from the picture. 61 This is not the usual objection made to the persona approach, which has certainly had its critics.
68 If the Juvenalian satiric persona, in its more appealing later incarnations, has successfully convinced some readers to see things his way, it is not so surprising. This master rhetorical performer’s goal would be to move and persuade his audience, using convincing fictions and an authoritative voice. Satire is manipulative literature, and even critics may not be immune. What we might regard as our sound analytical interpretation of echoes and differences between the earlier and later Satires may actually be a scripted, compliant response.