By Philip Farrell
Lung improvement: organic and medical views: Biochemistry and body structure, quantity I, offers a finished and multidisciplinary treatise with reference to surfactant-related concerns in lung maturation. regardless of the planned emphasis on biochemistry during this quantity, the purpose is to put this data within the viewpoint of anatomy, body structure, and scientific perinatology.
The publication is equipped into 4 elements. half I deals a quick old viewpoint by means of reviewing the chronology of medical and uncomplicated advances. half II then establishes a body of clinical reference by way of reviewing the morphology and cytology of lung improvement and the body structure of pulmonary surfactant. phases of improvement and adaptations within the maturation method are emphasised, whereas cautions to the biochemist are provided with admire to interpretation of experimental facts. half III offers an advent to lung biochemistry. half IV offers with the developmental biochemistry of lung phospholipid metabolism; the featured compound is the important surfactant part, phosphatidylcholine (PC). a focus for dialogue issues regulatory mechanisms working to manage the construction of saturated computing device in the course of past due gestational improvement of the fetal lung.
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Extra info for Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives. Biochemistry and Physiology
Fetal rhesus monkey lung development: Lobar differences and discordances between stability and distensibility. J. Appl. Physiol. 4 3 , 92. 20. Landing, Β. H. (1979). Congenital malformation and genetic disorders of the respiratory tract. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 120, 151. 2 1 . Meyrick, B . , and Reid, L. M. (1977). Ultrastructure of alveolar lining and its development. In "Development of the L u n g " (W. A. ), p . 135. Dekker, New York. 22. Perelman, R. H . , Engle, M. , and Farrell, P. M. (1981).
The time of appearance of the definitive epithelial cells varies in different species. In man they begin to differentiate at 5-6 months, whereas in other species they only appear in the last 10% of gestation. The morphologic events are similar, however. The tight junctions begin to move closer to the basement membrane so that an increasing portion of the lateral surface of the cell is exposed to the alveolus and a decreasing propor tion is intercellular space. Then gradually some cells flatten, spreading their cytoplasm along the basement membrane (type I cells), especially over points of capillary fusion, while other cells retain their cuboidal shape and begin to form lamellar bodies from dense bodies.
14). In freeze-fractured preparations, this film is devoid of intramembranous Fig. 14. Alveolar lining of rat lung. On the left a surface film (arrow) covers a distinct hypo phase. On the right tubular myelin (TM) can be seen. Where it is cut in cross section, the tubules have a gridlike pattern (center); where it is sectioned longitudinally, there are parallel arrays of membranes. Bar = 1 μηι. 3 . The Cytology of the Lung 47 particles (85, 126), resembling artificial phospholipid membranes. The surface film presumably corresponds to the functional surfactant, and the appearance of the duplex lining layer agrees well with the physiological model of surfactant.