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By J D Dewar, R Anderson

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They are also used extensively to enable higher workabilities to be used without violating max W/C requirements and without increasing bleeding or risks of segregation. Superplasticizers can be used as highly effective water-reducers. Rates of loss of workability may, however, be increased when water-reducers are used. 25 mm has a number of benefits. (i) To reduce water demand for particular workability (ii) To increase cohesion and improve handling and finishing; pumping may be assisted (iii) To reduce bleeding (iv) To modify pore structure, giving lower permeability (v) To increase resistance to freeze-thaw cycles and to thermal shock associated with use of de-icing salts.

Calcium chloride is not now permitted by BS 8110 to be used in concrete containing embedded metal. However, the introduction of BS 5075 (Concrete admixtures) is helping to build faith in the use of admixtures. A second problem relates to the relatively small quantities of admixtures used. g. pigments, airentrainment). The purchaser may be concerned over uniformity of distribution through the batch and of the dangers of over-dosing. Such concerns are only overcome with satisfactory experience over a period of time.

5 N/mm2. 5 or 2 tonnes, can be expected to deviate from the short-term bulk average strength by about ±3–5 N/mm2, so that it is not surprising that the variation in the strength of cement is obviously a major factor influencing the uniformity of strength of ready-mixed concrete. The reporting of bulk average values, over a period of time, provides some extremely valuable information. It enables the ready-mixed concrete producer to confirm observed changes in mean level of concrete strength in his own control system.

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