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By Norman G Einspruch; Graydon B Larrabee

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Lower detection limits, along with improved spatial resolutions. In spite of these demands on silicon materials quality and the tools used to perform quality and process control, it is important to understand that the in­ expensive, standardized characterization techniques will serve as the base. APPENDIX. PROPERTIES OF 54 ELEMENTS IN SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON1 Aluminum Summary (1, 3). 057 eV. Both hole and electron traps are present after heat treatment in dry oxygen at temperatures greater than or equal to 1000°C.

Sb and As Neutron activation Resistivity incorrect Spark-source mass spectroscopy Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (2) Heavy metal contamination Neutron activation Lifetime low Spark-source mass spectroscopy Resistivity incorrect Secondary ion mass spectroscopy DLTS Emission spectroscopy (3) Surface haze and/or surface contamination X-ray fluorescence Polishing residues Electron microprobe Surface techniques (see Chapter VI) (4) Oxygen precipitation uncontrolled Oxygen levels too low/high FTIR for O and C X-ray topography Carbon levels too high TEM Incorrect nucleation process (5) Polishing damage Chemical etching Double-crystal x-ray topography TEM (6) Backside damage uncontrolled Chemical etching X-ray topography (single and double crystal) TEM (7) Radial resistivity variation Microresistivity changes Spreading resistance Oxygen donor activity Chemical etching FTIR-radial measurements ° See Table III for sensitivity limitations and Sections II.

0 x x x x 1011 109 10 13 10 11 3 Element A t o m s / cm Mo Ni Sb W < 1 . 5 x 1011 a In most cases heavy metal impurities are below the detec­ tion limits shown in Table III. 5. Oxygen and Carbon The analysis of crystals for oxygen and carbon is carried out using the ASTM procedures F121 and F123 [32]. In both of these procedures a section of crystal is cut approximately 2-5 mm in thickness, both faces are pol­ ished, and the oxygen and carbon are determined using infrared spectroscopy. With the advent of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the ASTM procedures are performed with these instruments.

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