By Ali M. Mansoor, Bryce Qullin
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Additional info for Migration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
Most of the migrants into Russia consist of persons migrating from the other states of the former Soviet Union, which show large population declines from migration. There have been several countries in the region that have transitioned from net emigration to net immigration including Belarus, Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro. Of the five ECA countries with population declines of over 15 percent, four are in the southern tier of the former Soviet Union. The three Baltic states have had considerable out-migration in large part because of the emigration of large numbers of Russians and Russianspeakers in the years immediately following the breakup of the Soviet Union.
A. org/ECA). • Evaluating the current framework of programs to manage international labor flows among the ECA economies and between these economies and Western Europe and the key migration-receiving countries in the CIS; and Overview • Suggesting the broad contours of reforms to enhance the gains from migration by modifying international agreements and strengthening the policies and institutions of the migrationsending countries. Endnotes 1. This report uses the World Bank’s delineation of the zone of formerly centrally planned economies in Europe and Central Asia.
Regulatory Framework for International Labor Migration Multilateral efforts to address migration have been related almost exclusively to the Mode 4 framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Mode 4 addresses the provision of services through the cross-border movements of citizens of the World Trade Organization (WTO) member countries. Its introduction generated initial optimism that a broader liberalization of labor markets could follow. A commitment to deepen the coverage of Mode 4, however, has not yet emerged.