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6 Stress–strain plot for steel. When any beam is subject to load it bends as shown in Fig. 7(a). The top half of the beam is put into compression and the bottom half into tension. In the middle, there is neither tension nor compression. This axis is normally termed the neutral axis. 7(b) and (c)). The maximum stress in compression and tension is σy. The average stress in compression and tension is σy /2. Hence the compressive force, Fc, and tensile force, Ft, acting on the section are equal and are given by Fig.

However, this approach may not be suitable for foundations, for example if ground investigations indicate the concrete will be exposed to an aggressive chemical environment. e. C20/25, and the maximum aggregate size but also the maximum permissible water/cement ratio, minimum cement content, permitted cement or combination types, amongst other aspects. 2 CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF REINFORCEMENT, fy Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. Because of this it is normal practice to provide steel reinforcement in those areas where tensile stresses in the concrete are most likely to develop.

6Q k. Thus for a simply supported beam with an overhang (Fig. 4(b)–(d) will need to be considered in order to determine the design bending moments and shear forces in the beam. 12 9780415467193_C02 12 9/3/09, 12:37 PM Design loads acting on elements Fig. 3 Design loads acting on elements Once the design loads acting on the structure have been estimated it is then possible to calculate the design loads acting on individual elements. As was pointed out at the beginning of this chapter, this usually requires the designer to make assumptions regarding the support conditions and how the loads will eventually be transmitted down to the ground.

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