By Soo Mak, Paul A. Hulse, B M Carrington
Written via across the world popular authors, this name is a useful reference for all these required to file on MR examinations, with exact melanoma staging aided by way of the wide use of top of the range MR pictures of pelvic melanoma. every one bankruptcy provides a brief account of each disorder and a suite of pictures demonstrating the tumour, node and metastasis levels, in keeping with the 2010 UICC/AJCC staging method. A hugely resource, this advisor additionally: Introduces pelvic melanoma staging, MRI approach, and pelvic anatomy provides a entire set of state of the art photos of a number of the pelvic cancers comprises illustrations of recurrent illness and appearances following chemo-radiotherapy Discusses imaging earlier than exenterative surgical procedure and the imaging of metastatic ailment in the pelvis what is new to this version: New innovations in a few pelvic cancers, together with cervical, endometrial, ovarian and vaginal melanoma, corresponding to MR diffusion, MR spectroscopy and Dynamic distinction Imaging photo findings put up chemoradiation for cervical, rectal and bladder melanoma New part on picture findings in brachytherapy for prostate melanoma fresh bankruptcy on penile melanoma
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Extra info for MRI Manual of Pelvic Cancer, Second Edition
3d] [12/9/011/15:17:50] [16–37] ANATOMY OF THE PELVIS below the peritoneal reflection and rests on the pelvic floor. It is separated from the pubic bones anteriorly by the retropubic space. The vagina in the female and the seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia in the male lie posteriorly. The bladder is pyramidal in shape when empty with an apex, body, base (fundus), and neck. The apex lies anteriorly and points to the symphysis pubis. The base forms the posterior wall. The body lies between the apex and base and is formed from the inferolateral surfaces.
The deep inguinal lymph nodes are located medial to the femoral vein and receive lymphatic drainage from the superficial inguinal nodes, the glans penis, and the clitoris. External Iliac Nodes These consist of 9 to 10 nodes arranged in three distinct chains surrounding the external iliac artery. They receive lymphatic drainage from the bladder, the membranous urethra, the prostate, the cervix, and the upper part of the vagina. They drain to the common iliac nodes. Internal Iliac Nodes These receive lymphatic drainage from the rectum, anal canal, bladder, lower ureter, body and cervix of the uterus, upper part of the vagina, seminal vesicles, prostate, and vas deferens.
The surrounding adventitia that contains the vaginal venous plexus appears of high signal intensity on T2WI (Figs. 18). Following intravenous gadolinium-DTPA the vaginal muscle wall and submucosa enhance. A central low–signal intensity line, which probably represents the vaginal lumen, is occasionally identified (Figs. 7). The vaginal appearances vary with the phase of the menstrual cycle. The wall is thicker in the proliferative phase than the secretory phase. Vaginal secretions are most prominent in the late proliferative and early to mid secretory phase.