By Xing Zhang, D.J. Sanderson
Our figuring out of the subsurface procedure of the earth is changing into an increasing number of refined either on the point of the behaviour of its parts (solid, liquid and fuel) in addition to their diversifications in house and time. The implementation of coupled types is key for the certainty of more and more common phenomena and in predicting human impression on these.The starting to be curiosity within the relation among fluid stream and deformation in subsurface rock structures that characterise the higher crust has resulted in more and more really good wisdom in lots of branches of earth sciences and engineering. A multidisciplinary topic facing deformation and fluid movement within the subsurface procedure is emerging.While learn within the topic region of faulting, fracturing and fluid movement has ended in major development in lots of assorted parts, the technique has tended to be "reductionist", i.e. regarding the isolation and simplification of phenomena in order that they could be handled as unmarried actual approaches. the truth is that many strategies function jointly inside subsurface platforms, and this can be really precise for fluid movement and deformation of fractured rock lots. the purpose of this ebook is to start to discover how advances in numerical modelling could be utilized to realizing the advanced phenomena saw in such systems.Although mostly in keeping with unique study, the publication additionally contains the basic rules and useful equipment of numerical modelling, particularly distinctive point equipment. This quantity explores the rules of numerical modelling and the methodologies for one of the most very important difficulties, as well as offering useful versions with distinctive discussions on a number of issues.
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Additional info for Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Fluid Flow and Deformation of Fractured Rock Masses, First Edition
A . /I/Ii/" "~, I ? / , " ~ H / " , ~ , , , ~ , , ~ . ~,, , ~ , ,~," < ,/,/ '; ,. ' , ,/ /n, ,' v l '. / ~, ~, ,'_//-// /. ,, ,,.. l'"l (d) Figure 2-15 Effects of rock constitutive model on deformation and flows in model D under hydrostatic fluid pressure. 5 - 175 MPa compressive for M-C model and 0-219 MPa compressive for S-S model; ( c ) defomaation of rock blocks: the max. 66°for S-S model; and ( d ) flow-rates under pressure gradient in the x-direction the max. 99 x lO6m2 s"1 for S-S model.
EFFEC/S OF ROCK DEFORMATION MODELS In the above models, deformation involved a constitutive relation is based on an elastic, isotropic model. However, rocks are likely to behave nonlinearly under some circumstances. The Mohr-Coulomb model and a strain-softening model are used as alternative models for the deformation of intact rock blocks. For the Mohr-Coulomb elastic-plastic model, a shear yield function and a non-associated shear flow rule are used, which do not account for the plastic volumetric strain and strain softening in blocks.
Figure 2-7 shows the displacements in these models under a hydrostatic fluid pressure. In general, the fluid pressure tended to open the fractures, and the direction of opening was related to the direction of applied stresses and the geometry of the fractures. The variation, in both magnitude and direction of displacements of zones within the blocks (Figures 2-7b and27d) indicates rotations of the blocks. This can be confirmed in Figure 2-8 where different blocks had different rotations in terms of direction and magnitude.