Download One Goal, Two Paths: Achieving Universal Access to Modern by World Bank, Australian Government PDF

By World Bank, Australian Government

Regardless of the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region's remarkable financial progress, over 1 billion of its humans nonetheless lack entry to electrical energy and smooth cooking strategies. to accomplish common entry to trendy power by means of 2030, this publication exhorts EAP nations to develop concurrently on paths: (1) speed up courses for grid and off-grid electrical energy via applicable rules and leading edge applied sciences; and (2) scale up entry to scrub cooking fuels and effective cooking stoves, fairly for biomass in bad rural parts.

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Additional resources for One Goal, Two Paths: Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and Pacific

Example text

The following factors contributed to China’s successful electrification program. • The government has played a major role in rural electrification through laying down overall policy for rural electrification, providing financial support, promoting diverse financing sources, and developing technical standards and support. • Power sector institutions have evolved from central planning to more private investment, competition, and less regulation. • Financial and operational viability is ensured through subsidized sources of finance from central and provincial governments that increasingly are supplemented by private sector lending and capital.

Levelized costs are the present value of the total cost of building and operating a generating plant over its financial life converted to equal annual payments and amortized over expected annual generation from an assumed duty cycle. 18. 1 should be considered indicative, since new technological developments are likely to have changed the pattern of costs, particularly for several off-grid renewable systems, which, in recent years, generally have shown a downward trend. 30 65 Biogas Isolated minigrids 60 7 Minihydro 5,000 7 Municipal: Solid waste/ landfill gas 5,000 7 Geothermal binary 20,000 7 Biomass gasifier 20,000 7 Biomass gasifier 100 9 Diesel base load 5,000 9 Pico/microhydro 100 11 30,000 13 Geothermal binary 200 16 Diesel/gasoline generator 100 20 Wind 100 20 PV-wind hybrid 100 31 Microturbines 150 32 25 51 Coal steam subcritical 300,000 4 Large hydro 100,000 5 Combined cycle natural gas 300,000 6 Oil steam 300,000 7 Oil 300,000 12 Combustion turbines: Natural gas 150,000 13 Combustion turbines: Oil 150,000 23 Solar-thermal with storage Solar PV Main grid Levelized cost (USc/kWh) Source: World Bank 2007b.

Modern and transitional fuels often are not distributed in rural areas. • Traditional fuels often are overharvested, reducing their availability and increasing collection distances. • Biogas systems programs are small in most countries and relevant only for farmers with livestock. • Advanced stoves are still in development and pilot stage and require refinement. Source: Authors. China’s and Vietnam’s experiences demonstrate the potential of expanding biogas energy systems to HH who own livestock.

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